Introduction ::KiribatiBackground:The Gilbert Islands became a British protectorate in 1892 and a colony in 1915; they were captured by the Japanese in the Pacific War in 1941. The islands of Makin and Tarawa were the sites of major US amphibious victories over entrenched Japanese garrisons in 1943. The Gilbert Islands were granted self-rule by the UK in 1971 and complete independence in 1979 under the new name of Kiribati. The US relinquished all claims to the sparsely inhabited Phoenix and Line Island groups in a 1979 treaty of friendship with Kiribati.Geography ::KiribatiLocation:Oceania, group of 33 coral atolls in the Pacific Ocean, straddling the Equator; the capital Tarawa is about half way between Hawaii and AustraliaGeographic coordinates:1 25 N, 173 00 EArea:total: 811 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 187land: 811 sq kmwater: 0 sq kmnote: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix IslandsArea - comparative:four times the size of Washington, DCLand boundaries:0 kmCoastline:1,143 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmClimate:tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade windsTerrain:mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefsElevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 mhighest point: unnamed elevation on Banaba 81 mNatural resources:phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)Land use:arable land: 2.47%permanent crops: 39.51%other: 58.02% (2011)Irrigated land:NANatural hazards:typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes; low level of some of the islands make them sensitive to changes in sea levelEnvironment - current issues:heavy pollution in lagoon of south Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at riskEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:21 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia, and Nauru; Kiribati is the only country in the world to fall into all four hemispheres (northern, southern, eastern, and western)People and Society ::KiribatiNationality:noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)adjective: I-KiribatiEthnic groups:Micronesian 98.8%, other 1.2% (2000 census)Languages:I-Kiribati, English (official)Religions:Roman Catholic 55%, Protestant 36%, Mormon 3.1%, Baha'i 2.2%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.9%, other 1.8% (2005 census)Population:103,248 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 194Age structure:0-14 years: 32.3% (male 16,989/female 16,355)15-24 years: 21.2% (male 10,985/female 10,950)25-54 years: 37.2% (male 18,486/female 19,955)55-64 years: 5.3% (male 2,515/female 3,004)65 years and over: 3.9% (male 1,572/female 2,437) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 56.2 %youth dependency ratio: 49.8 %elderly dependency ratio: 6.5 %potential support ratio: 15.5 (2013)Median age:total: 23.2 yearsmale: 22.4 yearsfemale: 24.1 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.21% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 97Birth rate:22.18 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 75Death rate:7.24 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 123Net migration rate:-2.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 175Urbanization:urban population: 44% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:TARAWA (capital) 43,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Maternal mortality rate:9 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)country comparison to the world: 156Infant mortality rate:total: 36.5 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 63male: 37.74 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 35.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 65.11 yearscountry comparison to the world: 173male: 62.7 yearsfemale: 67.64 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:2.63 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 77Contraceptive prevalence rate:22.3% (2009)Health expenditures:11.3% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 16Physicians density:0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2006)Hospital bed density:1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 77% of populationrural: 50% of populationtotal: 62% of populationunimproved:urban: 23% of populationrural: 50% of populationtotal: 38% of population (2000 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 47% of populationrural: 22% of populationtotal: 33% of populationunimproved:urban: 53% of populationrural: 78% of populationtotal: 67% of population (2000 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:NAHIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NAHIV/AIDS - deaths:NAObesity - adult prevalence rate:46% (2008)country comparison to the world: 8Education expenditures:11.6% of GDP (2002)country comparison to the world: 4Literacy:NASchool life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 yearsmale: 12 yearsfemale: 12 years (2008)Government ::KiribatiCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Kiribaticonventional short form: Kiribatilocal long form: Republic of Kiribatilocal short form: Kiribatinote: pronounced keer-ree-bahssformer: Gilbert IslandsGovernment type:republicCapital:name: Tarawageographic coordinates: 0 53 S, 169 32 Etime difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)note: on 1 January 1995, Kiribati proclaimed that all of its territory was in the same time zone as its Gilbert Islands group (UTC +12) even though the Phoenix Islands and the Line Islands under its jurisdiction were on the other side of the International Date LineAdministrative divisions:3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands; note - in addition, there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21 island councils - one for each of the inhabited islands (Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina)Independence:12 July 1979 (from the UK)National holiday:Independence Day, 12 July (1979)Constitution:12 July 1979Legal system:English common law supplemented by customary lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIO; note - the president is both the chief of state and head of governmenthead of government: President Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice President Teima ONORIOcabinet: 12-member cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the House of Parliament(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: the House of Parliament nominates the presidential candidates from among its members following parliamentary elections and then those candidates compete in a general election; president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held on 13 January 2012 (next to be held in 2015); vice president appointed by the presidentelection results: Anote TONG 42.2%, Tetaua TAITAI 35%, Rimeta BENIAMINA 22.8%Legislative branch:unicameral House of Parliament or Maneaba Ni Maungatabu (46 seats; 44 members elected by popular vote, 1 ex officio member - the attorney general, 1 nominated by the Rabi Council of Leaders (representing Banaba Island); members serve four-year terms)elections: legislative elections were held in two rounds - the first round on 21 October 2011 and the second round on 28 October 2011 (next to be held in 2015)election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA, other 2 (includes attorney general)Judicial branch:highest court(s): High Court (consists of a chief justice and other judges as prescribed by the president)note - the High Court has jurisdiction on constitutional issuesjudge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president on the advice of the cabinet in consultation with the Public Service Commission (PSC); other judges appointed by the president on the advice of the chief justice along with the PSCsubordinate courts: Court of Appeal; magistrates' courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Boutokaan Te Koaua Party or BTK [Anote TONG]Kamaeuraoan Te I-Kiribati Party or KTK [Tetaua TAITAI]Maurin Kiribati Pati or MKP [Rimeta BENIAMINA]note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structuresPolitical pressure groups and leaders:NAInternational organization participation:ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMODiplomatic representation in the US:Kiribati does not have an embassy in the US; there is an honorary consulate in HonoluluDiplomatic representation from the US:the US does not have an embassy in Kiribati; the US ambassador to Fiji is accredited to KiribatiFlag description:the upper half is red with a yellow frigatebird flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the Pacific ocean; the white stripes represent the three island groups - the Gilbert, Line, and Phoenix Islands; the 17 rays of the sun represent the 16 Gilbert Islands and Banaba (formerly Ocean Island); the frigatebird symbolizes authority and freedomNational symbol(s):frigatebirdNational anthem:name: ""Teirake kaini Kiribati"" (Stand Up, Kiribati)lyrics/music: Urium Tamuera IOTEBAnote: adopted 1979Economy ::KiribatiEconomy - overview:A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls, Kiribati has few natural resources and is one of the least developed Pacific Islands. Commercially viable phosphate deposits were exhausted at the time of independence from the UK in 1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports. The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Economic development is constrained by a shortage of skilled workers, weak infrastructure, and remoteness from international markets. Tourism provides more than one-fifth of GDP. Private sector initiatives and a financial sector are in the early stages of development. Foreign financial aid from the EU, UK, US, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, UN agencies, and Taiwan accounts for 20-25% of GDP. Remittances from seamen on merchant ships abroad account for more than $5 million each year. Kiribati receives around $15 million annually for the government budget from an Australian trust fund.GDP (purchasing power parity):$636.3 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 212$620.8 million (2011 est.)$608.6 million (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$173 million (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:2.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1222% (2011 est.)1.4% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$6,100 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 148$6,000 (2011 est.)$6,000 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 24.3%industry: 7.9%services: 67.8% (2010 est.)Agriculture - products:copra, taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; fishIndustries:fishing, handicraftsIndustrial production growth rate:NA%Labor force:7,870country comparison to the world: 218note: economically active, not including subsistence farmers (2001)Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 2.7%industry: 32%services: 65.3% (2000)Unemployment rate:2% (1992 est.)country comparison to the world: 13Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%highest 10%: NA%Budget:revenues: $55.52 millionexpenditures: $107.1 million (2010 est.)Taxes and other revenues:32.1% of GDP (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 80Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-29.8% of GDP (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 215Fiscal year:NAInflation rate (consumer prices):0.2% (2007 est.)country comparison to the world: 6Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:-$35.01 million (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 62-$21 million (2007 est.)Exports:$7.066 million (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 214$17 million (2004 est.)Exports - commodities:copra 62%, coconuts, seaweed, fishImports:$80.09 million (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 216$62 million (2004 est.)Imports - commodities:foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, miscellaneous manufactured goods, fuelReserves of foreign exchange and gold:$8.37 million (2010 est.)Debt - external:$10 million (1999 est.)country comparison to the world: 196Exchange rates:Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -0.9658 (2011)0.9695 (2010)1.0902 (2010)1.2822 (2009)1.2059 (2008)Energy ::KiribatiElectricity - production:21 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 212Electricity - consumption:19.53 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 212Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 213Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 204Electricity - installed generating capacity:6,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 206Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 19Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 119Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 176Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 143Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 151Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 136Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 202Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 150Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 191Refined petroleum products - consumption:300 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 209Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 189Refined petroleum products - imports:260.8 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 204Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 148Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 159Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 126Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 85Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 153Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:43,690 Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 206Communications ::KiribatiTelephones - main lines in use:8,500 (2011)country comparison to the world: 201Telephones - mobile cellular:13,800 (2011)country comparison to the world: 210Telephone system:general assessment: generally good quality national and international servicedomestic: wire line service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Christmas Island); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; wireless service available in Tarawa since 1999international: country code - 686; Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2010)Broadcast media:1 TV broadcast station that provides about 1 hour of local programming Monday-Friday; multi-channel TV packages provide access to Australian and US stations; 1 government-operated radio station broadcasts on AM, FM, and shortwave (2009)Internet country code:.kiInternet hosts:327 (2012)country comparison to the world: 188Internet users:7,800 (2009)country comparison to the world: 204Transportation ::KiribatiAirports:19 (2013)country comparison to the world: 137Airports - with paved runways:total: 41,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 15914 to 1,523 m: 10under 914 m:5 (2013)Roadways:total: 670 km (2000)country comparison to the world: 190Waterways:5 km (small network of canals in Line Islands) (2012)country comparison to the world: 108Merchant marine:total: 77country comparison to the world: 58by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 35, chemical tanker 6, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 12, refrigerated cargo 15foreign-owned: 43 (China 26, Hong Kong 2, Russia 1, Singapore 9, South Korea 1, Taiwan 2, Vietnam 2) (2010)Ports and terminals:Betio (Tarawa Atoll), Canton Island, English HarborMilitary ::KiribatiMilitary branches:no regular military forces (establishment prevented by the constitution); Police Force (2011)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 25,190 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 18,364females age 16-49: 20,302 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 1,132female: 1,120 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:NAMilitary - note:Kiribati does not have military forces; defense assistance is provided by Australia and NZTransnational Issues ::KiribatiDisputes - international:none"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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